National Communism in Romania was the state ideology of Communist Romania between the early 1960s and 1989. Having its origins in Gheorghe Gheorghiu- Dej's political emancipation from the Soviet Union, it was greatly developed by Nicolae Ceaușescu, who began in 1971, through his July Theses manifesto, . The Socialist Republic of Romania refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one- party Communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989. From 1947 to 1965, the state was known as the Romanian People's Republic (Republica Populară Romînă, RPR. Nicolae Ceaușescu was a Romanian Communist politician. He was general secretary of the Romanian Communist Party from 1965 to 1989, and hence the second and last Communist leader of Romania. He was also the country's head of state from 1967, serving as President of the State Council, from 1974 concurrently as .